Author(s): Krishna Sri N, Durga Prasad NL, Malleswari AA, Santhi Priya A, Narayana AVVS and K Hariprasanth
Cancer known medically as a malignant neoplasm, is a broad group of various diseases, all involving unregulated cell growth. In cancer, cells divide and grow uncontrollably, forming malignant tumors, and invade nearby parts of the body. The cancer may also spread to more distant parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. Not all tumors are cancerous. Benign tumors do not grow uncontrollably, do not invade neig hboring tissues, and do not spread throughout the body. There are over 200 different known cancers that afflict humans. The molecular chaperone Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90) is a promising targ et in cancer therapy. Preclinical and clinical evaluations of a variety of Hsp90 inhibitors have shown anti-tumor effect as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy. Current Hsp90 inhibitors are categorized into several classes based on distinct modes of inhibition, including (i) blockade of ATP binding, (ii) disruption of co-chaperone/Hsp90 interactions, (iii) antagonism of client/Hsp90 associations and (iv) interference with post-translational modifications of Hsp90. Currently synthetic molecular switches are of interest in the field of nanotechnology for application in molecular computers. Molecular switches are also important to in biology because many biological functions are based on it, for instance allosteric regulation and vision. Quantum dots (QDs) are nanometer-size luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Their uniq ue optical properties, such as high brightness, long-term stability, simultaneous detection of multiple sig nals and tunable emission spectra, make them appealing as potential diagnostic and therapeutic systems in the field of oncology.