Received: Nov 30, 2022, Manuscript No. IJBPR-22-83580; Editor assigned: Dec 02, 2022, Pre QC No. IJBPR -22-83580 (PQ); Reviewed: Dec 16, 2022, QC No. IJBPR -22-83580; Revised: Dec 23, 2022, Manuscript No. IJBPR -22-83580 (R); Published: Dec 30, 2022, DOI: 10.35248/2287-6822.214.171.12444-2745
The zoonotic pathogen Leptospira is responsible for human leptospirosis. In numerous biotic and abiotic situations, pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira have been observed to produce biofilms. Cell growth is encouraged by biofilm, which also shields them from many forms of environmental stress. The pathogenicity and virulence of pathogenic bacteria may be enhanced by biofilm. A bacterial lifestyle that predominates in a variety of natural and artificial environments is biofilm development. A unique three-dimensional self-produced matrix that provides greater food supplies and supports enhanced growth and survival against biocides holds this community of bacteria together. A single microbial species several microbial species or a mix of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms may make up the community. An environment that is more secure for growing is created by the extracellular matrix that is self-produced and is composed of polysaccharides, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Compared to planktonic bacteria, microorganisms living inside biofilms have very different lifestyles. The interactions between cells and their surroundings are primarily responsible for the creation of biofilms. Quorum Sensing (QS) a technique of communication used by bacteria in biofilms enables them to regulate biofilm formation respond to environmental stress produce secondary metabolites, and express virulence factors. Bacteria can develop antibiotic resistance through horizontal gene transfer within biofilms. Biofilm growth, maturation and dispersion are challenging processes and it is yet unclear how these processes are regulated . Based on the environment in which biofilm production takes place, the nature of the biofilm matrix varies.
The environment that biofilms offer for interacting with several other microbial species in nature is crucial to metabolism. The metabolism of different bacterial species can be influenced by the interactions between the metabolites of different organisms. Through these interactions bacteria in the biofilm acquire biocide tolerance and resistance enabling them to endure in the presence of biocides. The biofilm’s cell-cell communication plays a key role in determining how the bacteria react to their surroundings. Different bacterial species exchange metabolites and metabolite by products which are not the case with planktonic bacteria. Bacterial biofilms can occasionally be advantageous since they can be employed as a biological control against phytopathogens and biofertilizers. Bioremediation hazardous pollutant treatment wastewater treatment and biofuel production are just a few biotechnological uses for biofilms . However the development of biofilms on surgical implants, prosthetic valves, feeding tubes and catheters has a significant impact on human health. The pathogenic bacteria can colonise the host effectively thanks to quorum sensing and biofilm development, and biofilms serve as a reservoir for releasing pathogenic planktonic cells into the environment. The formation of biofilms by pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenza, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Leptospira interrogans may boost the pathogen’s pathogenicity. The formation of biofilms by some pathogenic bacteria has been thoroughly investigated, but less is known about the formation of biofilms by neglected pathogens. Leptospira is one such overlooked pathogen that creates biofilms in both natural and artificial environments.
Leptospira includes pathogenic, saprophytic, and intermediate species. It is a member of the phylum spirochetes and belongs to the family Leptospiraceae. L. interrogans and Leptospira biflexa were the two initial species of Leptospira, with the former housing all pathogenic strains and the latter housing saprophytes. Later Leptospira was divided into serogroups and serovars according to the lipopolysaccharides that were exposed on the surface. The most common zoonotic illness brought on by the pathogenic Leptospira species is leptospirosis . Leptospirosis is common in areas with poor sanitation, dense populations and flooding. The illness produces foetal mummification and agalactia in animals, but also causes fever, renal and hepatic failure, pulmonary manifestation, and reproductive failure in people. Like other bacteria Leptospira has the ability to build biofilms. Leptospira cells are shielded by biofilms from a variety of physical and chemical stresses such as UV rays, high temperatures and antimicrobial substances, which in turn raise the likelihood of infection and pathogenesis . Various Leptospira strains were used to research the bacteria’s capacity to create biofilm.
According to reports, rather than floating, the majority of strains were able to develop biofilm mostly on surfaces. Additionally, the L. interrogans biofilm on polystyrene plates is more wash-resistant. Leptospira biofilm was discovered in a variety of aquatic habitats, including farmland, home sewage, and still pools of rainwater. The perfect conditions for bacterial growth and biofilm production are found in chronic wounds. According to studies, biofilms are present in 6% of acute wounds and 60% of chronic wounds. S. aureus is a common skin microflora that is connected to the growth of biofilm in chronic wounds. Leptospira may also produce biofilm in chronic wounds because they provide a source of access for the organism into the host. Staphylococcus and pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira have been shown to co-aggregate and produce biofilm in a study on dual-species biofilm formation. Leptospira was discovered in many biofilm microbiomes in both animals and environmental water bodies. The biofilm formation and maturation metabolism may vary since the metabolism of pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira is distinct . Compared to the pathogenic Leptospira biofilm, the saprophytic Leptospira biofilm has garnered greater attention.