Development and optimization of Etoposide loaded nanoparticles by using DoE response surface central composite design
Cancer is a leading cause of death globally. The World Health Organizationestimates that 9.6 million people died of cancer in 2018. More than 70% of all cancer deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries, where resources available for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer are limited or nonexistent. Present investigation aimed at formulation and optimization of nanoparticles with Etoposide, an anticancer drug. Design Expert software is used for optimization. A randomised response surface design was used for optimization procedure. Stirring speed and crosslinking agent concentration are the independent variables for the dependant variables of particle size and drug loading. Statistical data of the dependent variables obtained were subjected to the analysis of variance and were found significant at p<0.001 for particle size and at p<0.0001 for drug loading. Encapsulation efficiency of the NPs was evaluated and they were found to be between 65.87±2.78 - 88.95±1.09. The prepared NPs are with the minimum size of 98±8.76nm and a maximum size of 786.24±6.89nm. Through factorial design, it was optimised that 500rpm (at a level of 1) and the maximum concentration of glutaraldehyde at 25% (at a level of 1) will result a least mean particle size of 150.13nm and maximum drug loading of 86.24%.
Ruxandra, Lucia, Ioan, Timota, Marcela, Achim and Laurian, Vlase. “Development and optimization of quercetin loaded PLGA nanoparticles by experimental design.” Clujul Medical 88.2 (2015) 214-223. DOI: 10.15386/cjmed-418
Irene, Brigger, Dubernet, Catherine, Couvreur, Patrick. Nanoparticles in Cancer Therapy and Diagnosis. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 54.5 (2002) 631-651. DOI: 10.1016/S0169-409X (02)00044-3
Montecucco, Alessandra, Francesca Zanetta, Giuseppe Biamonti. Molecular mechanisms of etoposide. EXCLI Journal, 14 (2015) 95-108. DOI: 10.17179/excli2014-561
Mohammad, Sharjare, Mohammad Altamimi, Akbar Marzan., Rahnuma Tabassum, Hasan Reza, Mahbubur Rahman, Ahsan and Mohsin Kazi. In vitro dissolution and bioavailability study of furosemide nanosuspension prepared using design of experiment (DoE). Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal 27 (2019) 96–105. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2018.09.002
Bushra, Rabia, Muhamma Harris, Huma Ali, Farya Zafar, Muhammad Iyad, Nousheen. Aslam, Rabia Ismail. Formulation design and optimization of aceclofenac tablets (100 mg) using central composite design with response surface methodology. Latin American Journal of Pharmacy 33.6 (2015) 1009-1018.
Akbari, Tavandashti Pirhadi and Zandrahimi. Particlesize characterization of nanoparticles-a practical approach. Iranian Journal of Materials Science and Engineering 8.2 (2011) 48–56.
Kamali, Morteza, Rassoul Dinarvand, Hassan Maleki, Hossein Aazani, Parvin Mahdavaini, Houra Nekounam, Mahdi Adabi and Masood Khosravani. Preparation of imatinib base loaded human serum albumin for application in the treatment of glioblastoma. RSC Advances 5 (2015) 62214–62219.
Guruswamy, Annadurai, Lai Yi and Jiunn Fwu. Statistical optimization of medium components and growth conditions by response surface methodology to enhance phenol degradation by Pseudomonas putida. Journal of Hazardous Materials 151.1 (2008) 171–178.
Yu, Wen, Dong Mei, Rong Rong, Xi Ling, Hui Liu and Shi Long. pH-sensitive strontium carbonate nanoparticles as new anticancer vehicles for controlled etoposide release, International Journal of Nanomedicine 7 (2012) 5781–5792. DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S34773
Parmar, Singh, Lohade, Darshana, Soni, Samad, and Mala, Inhalational System for Etoposide Liposomes: Formulation Development and In Vitro Deposition. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 73.6 (2011) 656-662. DOI: 10.4103/0250-474X.100240
Marinho, Rita, Lucas Horiuchi and Carlos, Augusto. Effect of stirring speed on conversion and time to particle stabilization of poly (vinyl chloride) produced by suspension polymerization process at the beginning of reaction. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering 35.02 (2018) 631-640. DOI: 10.1590/0104-6632.20180352s20160453
Shah, Rohan, Eldridge Daniel Palombo and Ian Harding. Optimisation and Stability of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles using Particle Size and Zeta Potential. Journal of Physical Science 25.1 (2014) 59-75.
Ding, Ping, and Andrezej Pacek. De agglomeration of goethite nano-particles using ultrasonic comminution device, Powder Technology 187 (2008) 1–10. DOI: 10.1016/j.powtec.2007.12.016
Mahdavi, Mahnaz, Mansor Bin., Jelas Haran, Farideh Namvar, Behzad Nadi, Mohamad Zaki and Jamileh Amin. Synthesis, Surface Modification and Characterisation of Biocompatible Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications. Molecules 18 (2013) 7533-7548. DOI:10.3390/molecules18077533
Gupta, Kailash and Fawzi Jabrail. Glutaraldehyde and glyoxal crosslinked chitosan microspheres for controlled delivery of centchroman. Carbohydrate Research 341 (2006) 744-756. DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2006.02.003
Atyabi, Fatemeh, Saeed Manocheri, Shadi Moghadam, and Rassoul Dinarvand. Crosslinked stratch micropsheres, effect of crosslinking condition on the microsphere charecteristics. Achieves of Pharmaceutical sciences 29.12 (2006) 1179-1186. DOI: 10.1007/BF02969311
Uhle, Bronze, Costa, Ximenes and Lisboa Filho. Synthetic nanoparticles of bovine serum albumin with entrapped salicylic acid. Nanotechnology. Science and Applications 10. (2017) 11-21. DOI: 10.2147/NSA.S117018
Zhao, Dongmei, Zhao Xiuhua, Yuangand Zu, Jialei, Li, Yu Zhang, Ru Jiang. and Zhonghua Zhang. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro targeted delivery of folate-decorated paclitaxel-loadedbovine serum albumin nanoparticles. International Journal of Nanomedicine 5 (2010) 669–677. DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S16144
Migneault, Isabelle., Catherine Dartiguenave, Michel Bertrand and Karen Waldron. Glutaraldehyde: Behavior in aqueous solution, reaction with proteins and application to enzyme crosslinking. Biotechniques 37.5 (2004) 798-802. DOI: 10.2144/04375RV01.
Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Bio-Pharma Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.