Camptothecin (CPT) is one of anticancer drug that is widely used for treating various cancers. In India, the drug is primarily sourced from natural habitats of the red listed species Nothapodytes nimmoniana. Ecological niche models are potential tools to define and predict the “ecological niche” of a species that exhibit ecological variations. The predicted ecological niche of a species indicates their survival fitness against Bioclimatic variables. The habitat suitability was predicted using Maxent for different ecotypes of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Graham.) Mabb. In this study the synonymised populations of N. nimmoniana in the Western Ghats were cogitated as five different ecotypes. The predicted habitat suitability of different ecotypes were evaluated and correlated against CPT content using high performance thin layer chromatography. The study shows a significant positive correlation between the predicted habitat quality and chemical content. The ecotypes growing in sites predicted as highly suitable showed high content of camptothecin compared to those growing in poorly suitable sites. Thereby enabling precise identification of “chemical hot-spots” which will eventually establish a strong foot hold on monoculture of the species, an effort towards conservation.
Wall M.E., M.C. Wani, C.E. Cook, K.H. Palmer, A.T. Mc Phail, and G.A. Sim. “Plant antitumor agents I. The isolation and structure of camptothecin, a novel alkaloidal leukemia and tumor inhibitor from Camptotheca acuminate”. Journal of American Chemical Society 88.16 (1966): 3888-3890. Print.
Panneerselvam K., K. Bhavanisankar, M. Jayapragasam, A. Kumar, P. Rathakrishnan, A. Vijayaraghavan, and R. Adalarasan. “Effect of growth regulators and planting media on rooting of cuttings of Nothapodytes nimmoniana Mabberly.” Indian Journal Plant Physiology 9.3 (2004): 308–312. Print.
Govindachari T.R., and N. Viswanathan. “Alkaloids of Mappia foetida.” Phytochemistry 11.12 (1972): 3529. Print.
Ferlay J., H.R. Shin, F. Bray, D.M.C. Forman, and D.M. Parkin. “Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008.” International Journal of Cancer 127 (2010): 2893–2917. Print
Bray F., A. Jemal, N. Grey, J. Ferlay, and D. Forman. “Global cancer transitions according to the Human Development Index (2008 – 2030): a population – based study.” The Lancet Oncology 13.8 (2012): 790-801. Print
Vladu B., J.M. Woynarowski, G. Manikumar, C. Mansukhlal, M.C. Wani, M.E. Wall, D.D. Von Hoff, and R.M. Wadkins. “7 and 10-Substituted Camptothecins: dependence of Topoisomerase I-DNA Cleavable Complex Formation and Stability on the 7- and 10-Substituents.” Molecular Pharmacology 57.2 (2000): 243–251. Print
Masuda N., M. Fukuoka and Y. Kusunoki. “CPT-11: a new derivative of camptothecin for the treatment of refractory or relapsed small-cell lung cancer.” Journal of Clinical Oncology 10 (1992): 1225-1229. Print
Lilenbaum R.C., M.J. Ratain, A.A. Miller, J.B. Hargis, D.R. Hollis, G.L. Rosner, S.M. O'brien, L. Brewster, M. R. Green, and R.L. Schilsk. “Phase-I study of paclitaxel and topotecan in patients with advanced tumors: A cancer and leukemia group B study.” Journal of Clinical Oncology 13 (1995): 2230-2237. Print
Romanelli S.P., G. Perego, N. Pratesi, M. Carenini, and Z.F. Tortoreto. “In vitro and in vivo interaction between cisplatin and topotecan in ovarian carcinoma systems.” Cancer Chemotherapy Pharmacology 41 (1998): 385-390. Print
Clements M.K., Jones CB, Cumming M, Doud SS. “Antiangiogenic potential of Camptothecin and Topotecan.” Cancer Chemotherapy Pharmacology 44.5 (1999): 411- 416. Print
Lorence A., and C.L. Nessler. “Camptothecin: over four decades of surprising findings.” Phytochemistry 65.20 (2004): 2731-2841. Print
Priel E., S.D. Showalter, and D.G. Blair. “Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication in vitro by noncytotoxic doses of camptothecin, a topoisomerase I inhibitor. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses.” 7 (1991): 65–72. Print
Suhas S., B.T. Ramesha, G. Ravikanth, P.G. Rajesh, R. Vasudeva, K.N. Ganeshaiah, and R. Uma Shaanker. “Chemical profiling of Nothapodytes nimmoniana populations in the Western Ghats, India for anti-cancer compound, camptothecin.” Current Science 92 (2007): 1142-1147. Print
Ravikumar R., and D.K. Ved. “100 Red listed medicinal plants of conservation concern in Southern India. Foundation for revitalization of local Health Traditions.” Amruth 6 (2000): 261-263. Print
Hombegowda H.C., R. Vasudeva, G.P. Mathachen, R. Uma Shaanker, and K. N. Ganeshaiah. “Breeding types in Nothapodytes nimmoniana Graham.” Current Science 83.9 (2002): 1077-1078.
Shivaprakash K.N., B.T. Ramesha, R. Uma Shaanker, S. Dayanandan, and G. Ravikanth. “Genetic Structure, Diversity and Long-Term Viability of a Medicinal Plant, Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Icacinaceae), in Protected and Non-Protected Areas in the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot.” Plos One 9.12(2014), https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112769
Howard R.A. “Studies of Icacinaceae, II. Humirianthera, Leretia, Mappia and Nothapodytes, valid genera of the Icacinaceae.” Journal of Arnold Arboretum 23 (1942): 55-78.
Hutchinson G.E. “Homage to Santa Roslia, or why are these so kind of animals?” American Naturalist 93 (1959): 145-159.
Khanum R., A.S. Mumtaz, and K. Sunil. “Predicting impacts of climate change on medicinal asclepiads of Pakistan using Maxent modeling.” Acta Oecologica 49 (2013): 23-31. Print
Pearson R.G. “Species distribution modeling for conservation educators and practitioner’s synthesis.” American Museum of Natural History 3 (2007): 54-89. Print
Gelviz-Gelvez S.M., N.P. Pavón, P. Illoldi-Rangel, and C. Ballesteros-Barrera. “Ecological niche modeling under climate change to select shrubs for ecological restoration in Central Mexico.” Ecological Engineering 74 (2015): 302–309. Print
Fu Z.Z., Y.H. Li, K.M. Zhang, and Y. Li. “Molecular data and ecological niche modeling reveal population dynamics of widespread shrub Forsythia suspensa (Oleaceae) in China’s warm-temperate zone in response to climate change during the Pleistocene.” BMC Evolution Biology 14 (2014): 114. Print
Pikesley S.K, A.C. Broderick, D. Cejudo, M.S. Coyne, M.H. Godfrey, B.J. Godley, P. Lopez, López- L.F. Jurado, S.E. Merino, N. Varo-Cruz, M.J. Witt, and L.A. Hawkes. “Modeling the niche for a marine vertebrate: a case study incorporating behavioural plasticity, proximate threats and climate change.” Ecography 38.8 (2015): 803 - 812. Print
Thuiller W., L. Brotons, M.B. Araừjo, and S. Lavorel. “Effects of restricting environmental range of data to project current and future species distributions.” Ecography 27 (2004): 165-172. Print
Uma Shaanker R., B.T. Ramesha, G. Ravikanth, R. Gunaga, R. Vasudeva, and K.N. Ganeshaiah. “Chemical Profiling of Nothapodytes nimmoniana for Camptothecin, an Important Anticancer Alkaloid: Towards the Development of a Sustainable Production System.” Bioactive Molecules and Medicinal Plants 2008, 198 – 210. Print
Shivaprakash K.N., G. Ravikanth, N. Barve, J. Ghazoul, K.N. Ganeshaiah, and R. UmaShaanker. “Do ecological niche model predictions reflect the adaptive landscape of species? A test using Myristica malabarica Lam., an endemic tree in the Western Ghats, India.” PLoS ONE. 8, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082066
Ramakrishna A., and G.A. Ravishankar. “Influence of abiotic stress signals on secondary metabolites in plants.” Plant Signalling Behaviour 6.11 (2011): 1720–1731. Print
Wink M. “Evolution of secondary metabolites from an ecological and molecular phylogenetic perspective.” Phytochemistry 64 (2003): 3–19. Print
Jurik T.W. “Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Specific Leaf Weight in Successional Northern Hardwood Tree Species.” American Journal of Botany 73.8 (1986): 1083-1092. Print
Padmanabha B.V., M. Chandrashekar, B.T. Ramesha, H.C. Gowda, R.P. Gunaga, S. Suhas, R. Vasudeva, K.N. Ganeshaiah, and R. Uma Shaanker. “Patterns of accumulation of camptothecin, an anti-cancer alkaloid in Nothapodytes nimmoniana Graham., in the Western Ghats, India: Implications for identifying high-yielding sources of the alkaloid.” Current Science 90 (2006): 95-100. Print
Namdeo A.G., A. Sharma, D.P. Fulzele, and K. R. Mahadik. “Influence of Geographical and Climatic Conditions on Camptothecin content of Nothapodytes nimmoniana.” Records of Natural Products 4.1 (2010): 64-71. Print
Roja G., and M.R. Heble. “The quinoline alkaloids Camptothecin and 9-methoxycamptothecin from tissue cultures and mature trees of Nothapodytes foetida.” Phytochemistry 36 (1994): 65-66. Print
Wink M., A.W. Alfermann, R. Franke, B. Wetterauer, M. Distl, J. Windhӧvel, O. Krohn, E. Fuss, H. Garden, A. Mohagheghzadeh, E. Wildi, and P. Ripplinger. “Sustainable bioproduction of phytochemicals by plant in vitro cultures: anticancer agents.” Plant Genetic Resources 3.2 (2005): 90–100. Print
Ganeshaiah K.N., B. Narayani, N. Nilima, K. Chandrasekara, M. Swamy, and R. Uma Shaanker. “Predicting the potential geographical distribution of sugarcane wooly aphid using GARP and DIVA GIS.” Current Science 85.11 (2003): 1526-1528. Print
Hijmans R.J., S.E. Cameron, J.L. Parra, P.G. Jones, A. Jarvis. “Very high-resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas.” International Journal of Climatology 25 (2005): 1965–1978. Print
Busby, J. R. (1991). “A Bioclimatic analysis and prediction system.” In C.R. Margules & M.P. Austin (Ed.), Nature conservation: Cost effective biological surveys and data analysis, CSIRO, Melborne, Australia, pp. 64-68. Print
Priti H., N.A. Aravind, R. Uma Shaankera, and G. Ravikanth. “Modeling impacts of future climate on the distribution of Myristicaceae species in the Western Ghats, India.” Ecological Engineering 89 (2016): 14–23. Print
Hannah C., and E. J. S. Priya. Ecological niche modeling predicts the habitat suitability against the functional traits in different ecotypes of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Graham) Mabb. International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews 5.4 (2018) 302-391. Print
Peterson A.T., Papes M, Soberón J. “Rethinking receiver operating characteristic analysis applications in ecological niche modeling.” Ecological Modelling 213 (2008): 63–72. Print
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.